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Construction Of A Fiber Optic Cable

Fiber optic cables are cables for signal transmission. They are made up of many individual glass fibers, which consist of quartz glass as the transmission medium and form an optical waveguide (FO). These cables transmit light signals over long distances at the speed of light and with enormous data capacity.

The fiber optic cable consists of several individual glass fibers that form a bundle. The main parts of optical fiber, with a diameter of 250 micrometers (µm), as thin as human hair, have a core (“core”), a cladding (“cladding”), and an outer cladding (“primary coating”). These elements each perform a specific task to make the fiber optic cable work.

Optical light waves are transmitted through a channel called quartz sand. Another main part of the optic fiber is cladding which ensures the transmission of wave signals. Due to its plastic nature, the outer jacket gives the glass fiber flexible and robust properties. As a result, the cladding protects the fiber from breaking when deformed so that it can perform its function as a waveguide. 

Fiber optic cables (LWL) differ in design and use. Features of the distinction are, for example, the diameter of the fibers, the thickness of the coating, or the quality. The shape of the fiber has an impact on the quality of the transmission of optical light pulses. Optical fibers are divided into multi-mode and single-mode optical fibers. 

Singlemode glass fibers have a significantly smaller fiber core diameter than multimode glass fibers. In general, a single-mode fiber optic cable is suitable for data transmission over long distances. Multi-mode fiber is generally used for short-distance transmission in the data center.


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